Macular degeneration

Macular Degeneration by Pott Glasses

Macular degeneration


Macular degeneration, or as its more commonly known as Age-related macular degeneration(AMD). It is one of the cause of irreversible blindness among people who are in their golden years (Waugh et al, 2018). There are 2 types of AMD which are Dry AMD and Wet AMD. Dry AMD being characterized by the atrophy of certain areas of the retina, in layman terms, certain parts of the nerves in your eyes are dying or have stopped working (Waugh et al, 2018). Wet AMD would be characterized by abnormal new blood vessels growing in the retina, causing swelling mainly in the central part of the retina, causing vision loss (Waugh et al, 2018)  

Macular Degeneration by Pott Glasses

left : normal vision , right : permanent dark spot that blocks the vision for AMD patient

Signs and symptoms

Most patients don’t get any obvious symptoms in the early stages of the diseases. An optometric examination will take place to detect AMDs. In dry AMD patients, they typically report that the central vision is slowly deteriorating. However, the deterioration happens much more rapidly in wet AMD, sometimes in the matter of days (Horton & Guly, 2017). Hence, when checked with the amsler grid, which is a grid with many small squares, the patient will have to focus on a black dot in the middle of the grid and describe what they see. Usually the patient would report that the lines on the amsler grid is not straight or the squares look distorted or blur.  


For dry AMD, there’s very limited amount of treatment options. Usually, suggestion for treatment is that to go on a specific vitamin regiment and live a generally healthier lifestyle. Besides, patient will also be asked to quit smoking if they do smoke (Horton & Guly, 2017). For wet AMD, the one and only treatment available so far is the injection of anti-vascular endothelial growth factors (Anti-VEGF).

The administration of these drugs can stop the production of abnormal blood vessels and improve the visual acuity of the patient (Horton & Guly, 2017). The anti-VEGF are administered through an intraocular injection which means that a syringe will be inserted into the eyeball and the drug is administered straight into the eye. There has been a recent study on improving the vision of AMD patients by treatment with a corneal elastic modulus-altering procedure. This procedure basically alters the geography of the corneal to let the light hit the good parts of the retina instead of the bad parts, therefore, improving vision. However. this procedure is still being tested (Serdarevic et al, 2017).  


AMD does have a genetic disposition. However, recent studies have found that prolonged exposure to high energy blue light can also damage the retina. Therefore, causing AMD to occur earlier in life (Zhao et al, 2018). To cut down on one preventable cause of AMD, we implore our readers who are digital natives to start using blue filter lenses. This is to protect your eyes, provided that your job does not entail very accurate colour discrimination. This is due to blue filter lenses tend to have a faint yellow tint which may affect colour perception.


Horton, S., & Guly, C. (2017). Prevention and treatment of age‐related macular degeneration. Prescriber28(1), 37-41. Serdarevic, O., Tasindi, E., Dekaris, I., & Berry, M. (2017). Vision improvement in dry and wet Age‐Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) patients after treatment with new corneal CPV procedure for light redirections onto the retina. Acta Ophthalmologica95. Waugh, N., Loveman, E., Colquitt, J., Royle, P., Yeong, J. L., Hoad, G., & Lois, N. (2018). Introduction to age-related macular degeneration. In Treatments for dry age-related macular degeneration and Stargardt disease: a systematic review. NIHR Journals Library. Zhao, Z. C., Zhou, Y., Tan, G., & Li, J. (2018). Research progress about the effect and prevention of blue light on eyes. International journal of ophthalmology11(12), 1999.



What does an optometrist do?

A question that has been popping up a lot more recently due to the more informed public this age. Well fret not, in this post I’m going to talk about how can an optometrist help you.

Who is an optometrist?

An optometrist is a health care professional that are trained to handle ocular diseases and binocular anomalies on top of what the optician does which is refraction, lens edging and dispensing. We are also trained in specialty lens fittings such as rigid gas permeable (RGP) lenses, Rose-K and Ortho-K lenses.

What do they do?

In short, we are the primary care practitioners who are responsible to detect and solve problems with the eyes with ophthalmic lenses and contact lenses. We will then referr to ophthalmologists on an indication of a disease that may need medical intervention.

What should you look for from an optometrist?

We are trained in many different refraction techniques to deal with different types of eyes. This is to ensure that we get an accurate refraction results every time. In our kit, we have a Retinoscope and an Opthalmoscope.

The retinoscope is a tool that we use to determine the person’s power. Although these days we prefer to use an autorefractor which is the scanner that scans your power before we bring the you into the refraction room due to its speed, but when there is an indication to use it, such as when we notice that the astigmatism is too high, with the scope we can actually determine if the person would have keratoconus. In some more serious cases of cataracts, we can detect using the retinoscope as well.

The opthalmoscope is basically a magnifying glass to look in to the eye to check the retina. Usually the optometrist would turn off the lights and tell you to look at a specific direction. After that we would get close with the opthalmoscope to check the clarity of the ocular media. At this point we are able to determine if a person has cataract or not.

Then, we focus on the retina. The things that we would check for would be the ratio between the blood vessels, hemorrhages, leakages and also the optic nerve head. With that, we can determine if the person’s blood pressure and blood glucose level are at normal level, and the possibility of getting glaucoma. If you’re having pink eye, we would use a slit lamp, which is a microscope, to check the surface of your eye and the inner eye, to determine the cause of the red eye. Note that cause of a red eye could be bacterial infections, viral infections, allergies and foreign objects.

What about the kids?

Kids under the age of 6 are also more than welcome to be screened for lazy eye. Lazy eye could result in permanent loss of visual if it is left unattended. Therefore, it is prudent for us to check for the signs and symptoms before it is too late. We can also manage kids with squint eyes (mata sepet), with specialty prism lenses so that they don’t later develop lazy eyes as well. In some cases, prescribe in office training to help training kids’ eye muscles so that they’re aligned and look normal again. With all the technicalities aside, optometrists can also deduce the condition of your eyes through questions. In our book, there is a word of advice: 70% of the time, the patient would tell you their diagnosis. Its just that the patients are not aware of their conditions, so we are also there to inform and educate.

When should you see one?

Whenever you feel like your vision is not as good as it should be, eyestrains, headaches after long hours of work, persistent itching in the eyes, mucus discharge in the eyes, the list goes on. In a nutshell, optometrists possess the skills and knowledge to help you with more than just your vision but also your health. Book an eye check with optometrist today!

Eye exercise for better and healthier eyes by Pott Glasses

eye exercise

Eye exercise

is important in maintaining eye health. Similar to all other exercises that we commonly do such as running, swimming, gym etc that bring benefits to our body, eye exercise is definitely beneficial to our eyes. Basically the idea of doing eye exercise is to allow eye to work well and stretch eye muscle.

There are few eye exercises that we do do easily without any usage of equipment.

First : turn the eyes in different directions. This is analogous to stretching that we usually do, be it for the hamstring, calfs, shoulder and so on. The steps are simple and explained as the caption of the graphics.

Second : Eye massage

More often than not, we overuse our eyes. We spend more than 8 hours in front of computer and desk job, and another 4 hours with phone before going to sleep. Some who do not get 8 hours of sleep will definitely feel exhausted. As much as your body need to rejuvenate, your eyes too need a proper massage! Here are 7 points where you can gently massage and press on when you feel tired. Go one full round when you feel tired, trust us, you will feel much better! You can do it after a long meeting, halfway to your long journey drive or anytime when you feel like doing it.

Gentle press on these points promote better blood circulations around the eyes.

eye massage points

Third : Good habit and lifestyle

Undeniably the living pace is getting faster every day. Tonnes of work piled up waiting to be done. This leads to longer working hour and continuous staring at desk job. Furthermore, there are many who do not have enough rest; it is not only detrimental to the body, it also hurt the eyes.

Contact lens wearers tend to wear the lens longer than the recommended hours ie 8 hours. To make things worse, many do not follow the hygienic protocol of wearing contact lens. All these unhealthy lifestyles are harmful to the eyes. Thus, here are some proper habits to practice so as to take care of the eyes.


eye care

One thing to note : rubbing the eyes can cause the rise of astigmatism; it should be prohibited. Should you experience itchiness or tired eyes, you can massage the eyes as shown above. You should also stay away from using the phone under low light condition and before sleep. Not only that it will affect your sleeping cycle, it may also cause blindness.

To conclude, one should not take the eyes for granted. After all, we have only two pairs of eyes and the eyes are irreplaceable. Although the advancement in medical may help to cure certain vision disorder or impairment, as the saying goes, prevention is better than cure.

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Eye accommodation

eye structure


To see an image, the light has to fall on the retinal area to form an image and send signal to our brain. In order to ensure that the light falls on the retinal area, there are two parts of our eyes that will work together. First is our cornea, and second is the crystalline lens behind our cornea.

Prescription eyewear

Here, we would like to introduce the idea of power or prescription. We know that:

  • if we have short sightedness we have a power of -2.00D or -5.00D
  • if we have long sightedness we have a power of maybe +2.00D or +5.00D.


  • the cornea has a power of -17.00D and
  • the crystalline lens has a power of -45.00D.

The 2 parts ensure the correct combination of power so that the light falls on the retinal area to form image.

  • The cornea power is fixed
  • The crystalline lens is the one with flexible power which changes based on the thickness.

It is not practical to move the distance between your target and the object that you want to see. There is where crystalline lens play role.

Thickness of the crystalline lens will be adjusted automatically according to the distance of the target.

Eye Pain. Protect eyes from computer.

Crystalline lens will become thick when see near target and thin when see far target. However, the fluctuation of the thickness of the crystalline lens become very frequent due to the usage of the electronic screens especially computer screens.

Your crystalline lens get fatigue due to the long hours usage of the screens. Your eye muscles is being strained too much to change and maintain the thickness of the crystalline lens.

Presbyopia Remedy: Reading glasses for old age reading problem

Glasses donation drive 2

Presbyopia is an age-related medical condition that results in the loss of the ability to see objects at a near range.

This gradual and intensifying condition is as a result of eye lens hardening and associated decrease in length along with strength of the ciliary muscle, which is accountable for the action known as ‘vision accommodating’.

Presbyopia mostly becomes evident around the mid 40s for many, regardless of how great their vision was all through life, we will all develop presbyopia at some point.

Symptoms of presbyopia

Those with presbyopia eye condition typically find themselves holding objects (e. g. a newspaper or even phone) at ranges further from their eyes compared to usual in order to see details on them more clearly.

They may also make a complaint of headaches, blurred vision and eye fatigue, that are worse in dimly lit environments or sensations of tiredness.

Tests are performed to detect presbyopia. It may be treated in several different ways, such as with eye glasses, lenses and surgery. Surgery may end up being done to change the particular form of the cornea, making near vision easier, or an artificial lens may be implanted after removal of the natural one.

Reading glasses / spectacles

Reading glasses assist with the refraction of light before it enters the planes of the eyes. People who already use glasses due to a preexisting problem may require a new set of eyeglasses according to their condition.

The particular purpose of bifocal glasses is to correct both near and far range problems. With these spectacles, the lens has 2 parts, where the lower half of the lens may be used for near vision and the particular upper half for far vision.

Besides bifocals, there are trifocals and progressive lenses. Trifocal glasses have three areas within the lens that will allow for far, near and mid-range vision.

Also, progressive lenses are different from bifocals in that will they have a gradual change in dioptric strength from the upper and lower halves of the particular lens, thus correcting eyesight from the far to near point. This eliminates the abrupt change on the line border that bifocal lenses use.


Now that you know the solution to the problem, use reading glasses to treat presbyopia symptoms. Don’t miss out the most important part when you read on our next article on learning all about reading glasses, and how to choose a comfortable pair of reading glasses.

You can also make an appointment to visit our shop for consultation. We will be answering all the questions you have.

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All you need to know about Reading Glasses

The article gives you an overview of reading glasses, what it is, the symptoms and solutions surrounding reading glasses and presbyopia.

Introduction of what is reading glasses

It’s essential to get our eyes inspected each year in light of the fact that our vision becomes weaker. What’s more, once you’re in your 40s, the progressions can be very stark from one year onto the next.

While a few people may require reading glasses, other people who have never needed to wear glasses may be shocked to discover they require them now.

Reading glasses are made fundamentally for presbyopia which is an age-related eye problem. Many people experience this problem when they approach 40 years old.

World vision day 2017 reading test
Reading test

Causes – who needs it?

Presbyopia is caused by a diminished elasticity in the eye’s crystallised lens, making it more hard to focus on objects in a close-up short distance. Reading glasses come in a few standard strengths that can be purchased by a consumer by trial and error.

One user Amy described her experience with reading glasses as simply the ‘perfect fit’. “Reading glasses are comfortable because it did not cause eye strain, and were surely less expensive. They’re cheap and affordable where you don’t need to stress over damaging them or losing them.”

The need for it really relies upon your vision. Some people may find it helpful as it removes the strain from reading. Some of you may find it absolutely necessary when it comes to reading newspaper.

For those moving toward 40, finding that glasses are useful might be the first symptoms of presbyopia. When presbyopia builds up, your visual perception will intensify and reading glasses will then be a need.

How is it different from prescription glasses?

Of course, a reading glasses is more necessary especially for close work. As we age, our eye muscles that allow us to focus become less elastic and focusing particularly close up becomes more difficult. This aging process, called presbyopia, happens to us all and it is too bad that it cannot be prevented. Even those who have never worn glasses may suddenly find they cannot read small print without it being at arm’s length as time passes by.

When this point is reached, denial is useless; you need to consider reading glasses! However as much as a normal glasses or a prescription glasses is concern, it helps you to correct Myopia, Hyperopia and Astigmatism but it does not correct Presbyopia so that is why we need a reading glasses. It specially assist those with presbyopia for a short range reading to have a clearer and sharper reading experience.

Detachable reading glasses

detachable reading glasses

Structure of reading glasses

Unlike short-sightedness, this type of glasses utilise convex lens to correct the reading problem. The higher the power required, the thicker the convex lens be, as it translate into the amount of “aid” needed to focus on near object such as newspaper wordings.

As it is a single vision lens, it is easy to wear with minimal distortion. However, one will realise that distant object can be quite blurry with reading glasses, (exception for wearer with farsightedness). Reading glasses do provide comfort in reading, but can be inconvenience to keep putting on when needed and taking off when not required.

corrected presbyopia

source :

Customised reading glasses

There are plenty of off-the-shelf reading glasses available in the market. You may get it from convenience stores, book shop and even night market. However, these ready made reading glasses may come in same power for both eyes and without astigmatism correction. Pupillary distance may not be suitable too. This is why while your friend find it comfortable wearing an off-the-shelf, you may not.

A customised reading glasses is made after conducting a thorough eye test and taking reading habit into consideration to prescribe the exact power that fit respective individual. Needless to say that the customised reading glasses will be clear and comfortable to wear. You can also choose really good design frame to make into reading glasses. Check out our frame selections here.

Why we should wear ?

Picking out the first pair of your reading glasses involves finding something that feels comfortable and look great at the same time. But then it is surely fun!

Reading glasses especially for those hard-core reader is somehow your much best companion at all times, so you must be wanting to have a good one in your possession.

Fret not, you can always consult any eyewear store and they will surely can offer you the one that matches you the best. Reading glasses is relevant for all different readers’ age and nothing is to be shameful about if you really need to wear one when reading. Since the thing that matters the most is for you to enjoy your reading time very well while having your creative imagination runs wild.


While reading glasses can help remedy issues identified with close proximity vision, they are not made to rectify long-distance vision issues. Moreover, for individuals who are encountering presbyopia, wearing reading glasses may obstruct their capability to see long-distance. If you’d like to find out more about progressive glasses, here’s a write up that will help you. Click here.

Talk to us to find our more about reading glasses, or any reading issue you have.

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What causes people to be short sighted? Ways to prevent shortsightedness

Short sightedness is Malaysia’s growing problem. In 2017, new spectacle shops increase tremendously at popular places in Malaysia to cater to the demand for eye glasses.

Short sightedness although common, is regarded as a shocking news on top of blurred vision, but why? That’s because what comes next will change your appearance forever! (To girls especially)

Short Sighted although stereotyped as being Nerdy / Computer Geek / Study too much, is now not the case unlike before; thankfully glasses is now considered part of the fashion.

Shortsighted Tip – What to do when I have myopia?

Glasses, one of humanity’s greatest inventions, allowing those with eyesight problem to have a crystal clear vision. In recent years, glasses are actually becoming one of the fashion accessory, thanks to talented eyewear designers. But still, who wouldn’t want a perfect vision?

One of the most common vision impairment will be short-sightedness a.k.a myopia or in Malay language – rabun dekat (where you can’t see objects in the far clearly). It usually starts early in a person’s life, so it will be best to take preventive actions from young. So let us take a look at some of the ways that prevent or slow down short-sightedness.


Causes of short sightedness

Shortsighted tip : Have some good reading habits

Let’s start with the obvious, as short sightedness is often linked with doing extensive close visual activities, such as reading, it is best to start by having some good reading habits. This is not limited to books and reading materials only, but also includes the TV, mobile phones, and computer. Here are some good reading guidelines that people of any age should start practicing:

  • Your reading material should be at least 30cm away from your eyes.
  • Sit in an upright position while reading, not lying down (though comfy).
  • Your TV should be at least 2 meters away.
  • Your computer screen should be at least 50cm away.
  • Make sure your room is well-lit for these activities (reading, watching TV, using computer).
  • Rest your eyes by looking away and focus on far-distance objects every 30 minutes.
  • You should not rub your eyes frequently.


Engage in more outdoor activities

Listen to your mom when she yells “go out and play!”, really. Research like this actually suggest that, by increasing the time you spend outdoors, you can actually be preventing short sightedness along the way. As to the exact reasons why being outdoor prevents the development of myopia, scientist are yet to be sure, but there are some theories suggesting that:

  • Being outdoor increases the chance of you looking at distance objects, hence relaxing the eye muscles.
  • Being outdoor triggers the release of a chemical in your retina called dopamine, which inhibits the growth of your eyeball (short-sightedness is because your eyeball is too long people!)


Shortsighted Stages – Early detection

It is always best to detect a condition early and take preventive actions for it, same goes for short sightedness. The condition usually becomes apparent during school-age, so it is important for parents to check their child’s eyesight frequently. For me, I came to know I have myopia at the age of 11 when I can’t see the McDonald’s menu clearly, sad. Well, back on topic, if you discover the problem early enough, your child’s myopia might be well controlled and does not get worse. A progressive lens can help to maintain the myopia; it’s commonly known as myopia control lens.


Although there are no evidence that good nutrient intake helps prevent short-sightedness 100%, but there are foods that will boost your overall eye health.

  • Lutein and Zeaxanthin: which aids in absorbing harmful sunlight and blue light. These nutrients can be found in dark leafy greens like spinach.
  • Magnesium: helps to ease the muscle in our eyes and also repairing protein. It can be obtained from peanuts, almonds, avocados, and whole wheat bread.
  • Vitamin D: helps protect and boost corneal health, as well as lower eye inflammation and boost visual sharpness. Tuna, eggs, and cheese are a good source for it.
  • Vitamin C: a powerful antioxidant much needed by our eyes. The cornea of our eyes also contains collagen, which is what vitamin C is known for boosting. Food rich in vitamin C are like citrus fruits, tomatoes, and broccoli.


So now you know, the ways to prevent short-sightedness. Start doing it for yourself, your child, or the people around you. Nothing beats having a good eyesight without having to wear prescription glasses or contact lenses. After all, if you still wish to make glasses a part of your OOTD, you can always go on and buy a pair of trendy frames, the best of both worlds, I guess.




Computer Glasses for Your Children

As a parent, you’ll do everything that is good for your children. Prepare breakfast to make sure that they eat healthily; send them to tuition classes so that they can learn more; bring them for vacation because you want them to enjoy their life; prepare an umbrella to cover them from rain, vitamin to build up their immune system and many more protections. However, you may have overlooked one thing, they use digital devices more than you did when you were younger. In fact, children are now inseparable from digital devices. All these tablet, smartphone, laptop etc, as much as they make the kids life more interesting and colorful, these devices do cause harm to their eyes. Now, we’ve got a solution to offer: computer glasses for your children.

Before we go deeper, ask yourself these questions.

  1. Do your children watch a lot of TV?

Chances are, they watch a lot of cartoon after schools. Well, please do not stop them from watching, but control the time instead. Watching TV for long hours can strain their eyes. However, with blue lens, they will find it more comfortable watching the show.

Children spending long hours in front of the TV.